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INTRODUCTION
FILE ATTRIBUTES
FILE OPERATIONS
FILE ACCESS METHODS
FILE ALLOCATION METHODS
FREE SPACE MANAGEMENT
DIRECTORY STRUCTURES
FILE SYSTEM PROTECTION
FILE SYSTEM RELIABILITY
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One main problem in file management is how to allocate space for files so that disk space is utilized effectively and files can be accessed quickly. Three major methods of allocating disk space are contiguous, linked, and indexed. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages. Accordingly, some systems support all three (e.g. Data General's RDOS). More commonly, a system will use one particular method for all files.

Contiguous Allocation

The contiguous allocation method requires each file to occupy a set of contiguous address on the disk. Disk addresses define a linear ordering on the disk. Notice that, with this ordering, accessing block b+1 after block b normally requires no head movement. When head movement is needed (from the last sector of one cylinder to the first sector of the next cylinder), it is only one track. Thus, the number of disk seeks required for accessing contiguous allocated files in minimal, as is seek time when a seek is finally needed. Contiguous allocation of a file is defined by the disk address and the length of the first block. If the file is n blocks long, and starts at location b, then it occupies blocks b, b+1, b+2, …, b+n-1. The directory entry for each file indicates the address of the starting block and the length of the area allocated for this file.

The difficulty with contiguous allocation is finding space for a new file. If the file to be created is n blocks long, then the OS must search for n free contiguous blocks. First-fit, best-fit, and worst-fit strategies (as discussed in Chapter 4 on multiple partition allocation) are the most common strategies used to select a free hole from the set of available holes. Simulations have shown that both first-fit and best-fit are better than worst-fit in terms of both time storage utilization. Neither first-fit nor best-fit is clearly best in terms of storage utilization, but first-fit is generally faster.

These algorithms also suffer from external fragmentation. As files are allocated and deleted, the free disk space is broken into little pieces. External fragmentation exists when enough total disk space exists to satisfy a request, but this space not contiguous; storage is fragmented into a large number of small holes.

Another problem with contiguous allocation is determining how much disk space is needed for a file. When the file is created, the total amount of space it will need must be known and allocated. How does the creator (program or person) know the size of the file to be created. In some cases, this determination may be fairly simple (e.g. copying an existing file), but in general the size of an output file may be difficult to estimate.

Linked Allocation

The problems in contiguous allocation can be traced directly to the requirement that the spaces be allocated contiguously and that the files that need these spaces are of different sizes. These requirements can be avoided by using linked allocation.

In linked allocation, each file is a linked list of disk blocks. The directory contains a pointer to the first and (optionally the last) block of the file. For example, a file of 5 blocks which starts at block 4, might continue at block 7, then block 16, block 10, and finally block 27. Each block contains a pointer to the next block and the last block contains a NIL pointer. The value -1 may be used for NIL to differentiate it from block 0.

With linked allocation, each directory entry has a pointer to the first disk block of the file. This pointer is initialized to nil (the end-of-list pointer value) to signify an empty file. A write to a file removes the first free block and writes to that block. This new block is then linked to the end of the file. To read a file, the pointers are just followed from block to block.

There is no external fragmentation with linked allocation. Any free block can be used to satisfy a request. Notice also that there is no need to declare the size of a file when that file is created. A file can continue to grow as long as there are free blocks.

Linked allocation, does have disadvantages, however. The major problem is that it is inefficient to support direct-access; it is effective only for sequential-access files. To find the ith block of a file, it must start at the beginning of that file and follow the pointers until the ith block is reached. Note that each access to a pointer requires a disk read.
Another severe problem is reliability. A bug in OS or disk hardware failure might result in pointers being lost and damaged. The effect of which could be picking up a wrong pointer and linking it to a free block or into another file.

Indexed Allocation

The indexed allocation method is the solution to the problem of both contiguous and linked allocation. This is done by bringing all the pointers together into one location called the index block. Of course, the index block will occupy some space and thus could be considered as an overhead of the method.

In indexed allocation, each file has its own index block, which is an array of disk sector of addresses. The ith entry in the index block points to the ith sector of the file. The directory contains the address of the index block of a file. To read the ith sector of the file, the pointer in the ith index block entry is read to find the desired sector.

Indexed allocation supports direct access, without suffering from external fragmentation. Any free block anywhere on the disk may satisfy a request for more space.

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